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AFM surface images of the GaN samples (a) before (b) after the Gd implantation at the highest dose, and (c) after the annealing at for , (d) as a function of the annealing and implantation states for both the samples.
X-ray diffraction symmetric scans taken on the reference sample (A-0) and sample A-3 before and after the annealing at for . The inset is schematically showing the distribution of the vacancies and interstitials in the implanted layer.
Magnetization loops obtained at for (a) samples A-1 and (b) A-3 before and after the annealing at different temperatures. The inset of (a) shows the temperature dependence of the FC and ZFC magnetization measured at a magnetic field of for samples A-1 after the final step of annealing. The inset of (b) shows the magnetization loop at low fields obtained at for sample A-3 after the final annealing step before subtracting the substrate contribution.
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