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Polarization fatigue. Remanent polarization of the PZT capacitor is plotted as a function of the switching cycles. The four fatigue states for the in situ XRSR measurements are marked.
(Color online) Experimental in situ XRSR. The four experimental XRSR curves are measured from the PZT thin film capacitor, corresponding to the four different fatigue states, as shown in Fig. 1. The inset shows the geometry of the thin film capacitor in the x-ray beam during XRSR measurements. With increasing grazing incidence angle , the electron density profile in deeper layers of the capacitor in the thickness direction is accessed by the x rays.
(Color online) Theoretical XRSR simulations. (a) Experimental XRSR curves between 0.8° and 1.5° enlarged for the demonstration of the simulations. Theoretical simulations for evaluating the possible oxygen vacancy accumulation at the top Pt/PZT interface at different concentrations of (b) 33.3% and (c) 5.56%. The upper limit for the oxygen vacancy layer at the top Pt/PZT interface is determined to be 5.56%.
Thickness , density , and surface or upper interface roughness of the constituent layers in the PZT capacitor obtained from best fits to the experimental XRSR curves. The error margins also indicate qualitatively the maximum differences among the structure parameters during fatigue.
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