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(Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of the spray process, (b) optical microscope image of the surface of the sprayed film, and (c) surface profile of the sprayed film.
(Color online) Absorbance of sprayed films with different deposition times deposited at optimized nozzle-to-substrate distance. The inset shows the same result obtained from spray deposition, but at a shorter distance than the optimized condition. (b) UV spectra of sprayed films with different deposition times.
(Color online) curves of sprayed OSCs with different effective thicknesses of active layers. 2.57% of PCE, of , of , and 0.52 of PCE were observed in the best device with thickness.
(Color online) IPCE curves of sprayed and spin coated OSCs and (b) curves of sprayed and spin coated devices fabricated in air.
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