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Spatially resolved photocurrent mapping of operating organic photovoltaic devices using atomic force photovoltaic microscopy
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A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique, atomic force photovoltaicmicroscopy (AFPM), has been developed to characterize spatially localized inhomogeneities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In AFPM, a biased cAFM probe is raster scanned over an array of illuminated solar cells, simultaneously generating topographic and photocurrent maps. As proof of principle, AFPM is used to characterize poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl--butyric acid methyl ester OPVs, revealing substantial device to device and temporal variations in the short-circuit current. The flexibility of AFPM suggests applicability to nanoscale characterization of a wide range of optoelectronically active materials and devices.
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