Full text loading...
The degradation and breakdown sequence of structures from no stress (cycle 0) to the soft breakdown of the layer (cycle 4), characterized by a distinct change in BH. After the soft breakdown, the BH of the layer is detected (cycles 4 to 10, not every spectrum is shown). The structure was stressed by continuous BEES sweeping from at . Current is always zero at low bias but is offset for clarity.
The corresponding change in BH for each stress cycle defined in Fig. 1. The BH is extracted by fitting the BEES spectra to the Kaiser-Bell model. (Inset) A schematic showing the experimental setup for (a) BEES and (b) conventional measurements on the same sample. A simple change in wiring swaps between the two setups.
Conventional current-voltage characteristics of structures before and after the localized soft breakdown of the interfacial layer. (Inset) Zoom in of the low-bias region from .
Calculated tunneling current through structures vs normalized gate area for different thicknesses. The nanoscale breakdown area is fixed at , which also defines the scale of the actual gate area shown on the upper axis. The voltage is fixed at , and the temperature is . The black solid line represents the threshold that nanoscale breakdowns can be observed by the macroscopic measurements, or are masked by the gate area (Ref. 24).
Article metrics loading...