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XRD profiles for the Ni-layer and pure films. The (0001) and (0002) peaks of can be seen at the same position for both films. The profile for the Si (100) substrate is also shown.
relations for Ni-layer and the pure films in parallel and the perpendicular fields at . The lines are guides to the eye.
Schematic illustration of cross sectional image of (a) a Ni-layer film and (b) a pure film. The multilayer structure should be effective for flux pinning in parallel fields. The grain boundaries between the columnar grains are considered to be a strong pinning center in perpendicular fields.
Field dependence of at . The solid lines correspond to the curve shape predicted for grain boundary pinning by Eq. (1). The broken line represents the case of grain boundary flux shear, which corresponds to the model described by Eq. (2).
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