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Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination
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10.1063/1.2903714
/content/aip/journal/apl/92/13/10.1063/1.2903714
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/92/13/10.1063/1.2903714

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Illustration of the mechanism to which the optical loss is attributed. During RIE, sputtered metal atoms react with the silicon sidewall to form a dilute silicide. The silicide is difficult to remove and induces an optical loss that is comparable to loss induced by a metal. The metal hard mask was thoroughly stripped before optical characterization.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph of the high-loss waveguide with the largest sidewall roughness observed in this study. This order of roughness is not sufficient to account for the observed loss. The waveguide was fabricated with a Co hard mask. The roughness on the top surface of the thick under-cladding is due to thin lift-off imperfections partially masking the waveguide surroundings during RIE until they were sputtered away.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

STEM-EDS analysis of a Si waveguide etched in proximity of Pd and thoroughly cleaned with wet chemical processing. (a) Cross-sectional micrograph indicating where the EDS spectra were acquired. (b) EDS spectrum acquired from the waveguide sidewall showing no detectable Pd. [(c)–(e)] EDS spectra acquired from the waveguide sidewall showing, in average, about 5% atomic concentration of Pd in Si. The distribution of Pd along the waveguide sidewall is consistent with sputtering from the top metal mask.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Transparency of waveguides etched with various metal hard masks.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/92/13/10.1063/1.2903714
2008-04-01
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/92/13/10.1063/1.2903714
10.1063/1.2903714
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