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(a) Schematics of heterogeneous gate stacks (S1–S5) examined in this work. Energy band/level diagram representation of tunneling barriers with (b) resonant tunneling through under high electric field and (c) direct tunneling through under low electric field.
Measured tunneling current through S1 with a evaporated barrier and S2 with a evaporated barrier. The dash lines are calculated from the WKB approximation for and .
High frequency sweeps with increasing range from for memory cells without the Au NC layer (S3) and with the Au NC layer (S4). Both S3 and S4 are with the -embedded tunneling barrier.
Retention and P/E characteristics of metal NC memories, S4 with a composite barrier of evaporated and S5 with a single layer of . For consistent initial conditions, the preset bias prior to the retention and P/E measurements is for .
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