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(a) TES x-ray sensor integrated with NIS refrigerators (Bi absorber not shown). Four pairs of NIS refrigerators are located at the corners of a membrane (dashed outline). Y-shaped cold fingers extend from the normal metal of the NIS junctions onto the membrane. (b) False-color SEM image of membrane corner.
(a) JNT of the unbiased TES with NIS refrigerators off (open circles) and on (solid circles). Noise power averaged between 0.6 and (left axis) and cooling calculated from Eq. (2) (right axis). The NIS cooling is well matched by theory (solid line). Potential cooling with improved NIS refrigerators shown as dashed line. (b) Log-current plot of NIS curves. Data (circles) and theory (lines) show excellent agreement. The inset shows the s on a linear current scale (axes units unchanged).
(a) TES s with the NIS refrigerators off (solid lines) and on (dashed lines). (b) Thermal model for NIS-cooled TES. Thermal conductances and temperatures are labeled for each element.
(a) x-ray spectrum (9069 pulses) at an ADR temperature of . The inset shows a zoomed view of the complex and the theoretical fit. The TES is biased at 60% with a bias power of and a fall time of . (b) TES current noise with the NIS refrigerators off and on. The TES is biased at 40% . ADR temperatures were chosen to compare the same TES bath temperature.
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