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Schematic diagram of an EUV wafer scanner. Adapted from Ref. 3.
Schematic diagram of the Philips EUV source.
Experimental arrangement for the frequency scaling experiments. The two lasers operate at the same, fixed repetition rate (rep. ), while the relative timing between the pulse trains can be varied. For all experiments , which means that effectively a series of double pulses is generated. The discharge that is triggered by the second pulse (laser 2) is made under equivalent conditions as source operation at frequencies . In this way, high-frequency operation of the source can be mimicked by choosing small.
Oscilloscope image measured during a frequency scaling experiment at effectively . The upper signal is the voltage on the capacitor bank, the lower signal the produced in-band EUV, measured with a (slow) photodiode.
Results of frequency scaling experiments. Left: Measured EUV output power in 2 of high-frequency pulses, with and without etendue correction. Right: EUV pinhole image showing a superposition of 25 double pulse discharges at effectively .
Results of pulse energy scaling experiments. Left: The measured EUV output energy in 2 per pulse (128-pulse average), with and without an etendue correction. Right: EUV pinhole image measured at input pulse energy.
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