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Experimental circuit for measuring the optical signals in the EEFL. The measuring points of the optical signal are labeled with . A driving voltage of opposite polarity is applied to both ends with the potential difference of .
Oscilloscope signals of voltage, current, and the optical probe pulse. The peak of the optical signal measured at a position between and in Fig. 1 coincides with the voltage peak.
The optical signals measured at points vs the time shift from the voltage peak, for EEFL luminance of . The time shift at points are , , , , , , and , respectively.
Dispersion relation of Eq. (4) for electron plasma waves in EEFLs with various collision ratios of .
Parameters measured with EEFL luminance of .
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