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(a) Bipolar resistance switching characteristics of the device; the inset shows the schematic view of the structure. (b) Sequences of set/reset voltage pulses used to study the EPIR effect and the corresponding respondent current.
(a) Area and (b) temperature dependence of the resistance value in HRS and LRS, respectively. Statistic data show strong support to the conducting filament model. (c) Frequency dependence of the ac conductance in LRS, the inset shows the fitted curves using Mott’s hopping theorie (Ref. 14).
(a) Multilevel breakdown phenomenon in RRAM device; the inset shows the reset operation after the thorough breakdown. (b) Relaxation process: respondent current values under durable stress for using sampling mode, and simulated current curve in HRS.
Resistance switching mechanism of traditional set (a); slow soft breakdown, which exhibits multilevel resistance states [(b) and (c)]; and reset (d) processes in RRAM devices. The XPS spectra of Zn and O core levels in ZnO film (e). Nonlattice oxygen ions were observed in the ZnO film.
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