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A typical activation curve of the GaAs cathode. We turn on the Cs flux first. The QY increases and reaches its maximum. Then the flux is turned on after the QY drops to of the maximum reached. The QY increases again and will reach a higher maximum. We then turn off the and Cs sequentially.
spectra taken at different time after the activation. There is a significant amount of nitrogen in the activation layer. There are two peaks in all the spectra. The intensity of peak 1 decreases with time and the intensity of peak 2 remains the same.
spectra taken at different time after the activation. There is only one peak in each spectrum and the intensity of peak decreases with time.
We calculated the normalized intensities of peaks and peaks at different times after the activation. There is strong correlation between peak 1 and . This indicates that the F atoms in the activation layer are bonded to the N atoms.
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