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characteristics of device (a) and device (b) with a 10-, 20-, 30-, -thick DNA-CTMA layer. Insets show schematic device configurations for the four-layer WPLEDs (a) and bio-WPLEDs (b), and luminous efficiencies of the devices as a function of the driving current density.
characteristics of devices (a), (c), and (d). Insets show schematic device configurations for the five-layer bio-WPLEDs, and the luminous efficiency as a function of the current density for devices (a), (c), and (d), respectively.
Schematic diagrams of energy levels for all materials involved in the WPLED and bio-WPLEDs.
The normalized EL spectra of device (d) operated at different biased voltages. The insets show the photos of device (d) (left) and a device with the configuration of (right) after continuous operation at for in air.
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