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Energy band diagram of a tunneling-injection QD laser and the main processes: ① carrier injection from the cladding layers to the OCL, ② majority carrier capture from the OCL into the QW and thermal escape from the QW to the OCL, ③ carrier tunneling from the QW into a QD, ④ spontaneous and stimulated recombination in a QD, ⑤ carrier out-tunneling from a QD into the foreign QW, ⑥ spontaneous recombination in the QWs, ⑦ minority carrier thermal escape from the QW to the OCL and capture from the OCL into the QW, and ⑧ spontaneous recombination in the OCL.
LCC of a tunneling-injection QD laser (solid curve). The dashed line is the LCC of an ideal structure given by Eq. (8). The dash-dotted line is the asymptote given by Eq. (11). The inset shows the parasitic recombination current density (solid curve) and out-tunneling current density (horizontal dashed line) against excess injection current density. GaInAsP heterostructure lasing near is considered here. The tunneling coefficients are as follows: , , , and .
Internal quantum efficiency (dashed curve) and slope efficiency (solid curve) against excess injection current density.
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