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Lead-free flip chip solder joint with copper column (a) type 1, (b) type 2, and (c) electromigration setup.
IMC growth in copper column solder with and without current stressing. [(a)–(c)] Unpowered bumps 100, 500, and . Current stressing after 100, 500, and , with electrons from top to bottom.
Impact failure for flip chip solder joint having a high fraction of IMC.
Formation of voids in copper column solder joint after electromigration at current density of . [(a) and (b)] type 1 and [(c) and (d)] type 2.
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