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Photopolymerization and photopolymerized structures under low temperature. (a) Schematic illustration of the temperature controlling block, LN: liquid nitrogen, OL: objective lens. (b) A dual-beam interference system for characterizing the refractive index change of the laser-exposed pad as the sample temperature is increased from below freezing point of the resin to RT. (c) SEM image of a two-photon polymerized letter “A,” which underwent the temperature varying sequence prior to sample rinsing. (d) The resin refractive index change versus temperature, indicating the occurrence of polymerization.
Spatial resolution investigation by means of voxel formation. (a) Long voxels and (b) approximately half-truncated voxels produced by the ascending scan approach. The applied laser pulse energy is . (c) Lateral voxel sizes under varied temperatures. Each point is obtained by averaging data from six identical experiments.
SEM images of diamond-lattice PhCs heated under different temperatures for : (a) as fabricated at RT, (b) , (c) , (d) , and (e) .
(a) The treatment temperature-dependent lattice constants of the heated PhC. (b) Reflection spectra of the PhC structures treated under different temperatures.
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