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(a) Schematic top view of the device. (b) Schematic cross section along the line . (c) Scanning-electron-microscope image of the device before the upper gate formation. Repetitive pulse voltage denoted by is applied to the central gate and the constant negative voltage is applied to the right gate. The left-gate voltage is fixed at . (d) Schematic diagram of the operation of the SE ratchet.
(a) Normalized current under zero source-drain bias at , 25, 50, and . The first derivative is shown for . Contour plots of the SE ratchet current for (b) and , and (c) and at . The lower-right region in (b) corresponds to the electron leakage from the drain over the drain-side barrier, resulting from the potential increase of the drain by a large negative .
Nanoampere SE pumping demonstrated using another device at , (low), (high), and .
(a) Calculated first and second derivatives fitted to the experimental results for step at . The inset depicts a schematic diagram of the nonadiabatic electron capture. (b) Rise time dependence at . The inset describes the shift of the current steps (the peak positions in the first derivative).
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