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Fabrication of graded index waveguides in azo polymers using a direct writing technique
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Chemical structure of the polymeric material used in this work and (b) absorption spectrum of the polymeric material. This material was exposed to for waveguide writing.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Waveguide fabrication apparatus for direct laser-writing technique. The precision stage is controlled by the computer which moves the sample in the direction of the waveguide.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The coupled light into an “s-curve” waveguide observed from above by a CCD camera. The waveguiding path is clearly observed by the scattered light. Inset: Waveguide profile observed through a polarizing microscope which shows the graded nature of the waveguide. We intentionally chose a waveguide with high scattering path so that it would appear clearly in the picture.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic diagram for light coupling and loss measurement. The light is coupled into the waveguide by a prism coupler. Another prism is used to out couple light from the waveguide. The intensity of the laser before the coupling prism is , about 2% of which enters the waveguide. Low coupling efficiency in prism coupler and narrowness of the waveguide are the main causes of the low coupled light into the waveguide.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Measured intensity of the out-coupled light vs distance for length of the polymeric waveguide.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Fabrication of graded index waveguides in azo polymers using a direct writing technique