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(a) the valence band (VB) spectrum of substrate. (b) The VB spectra of (I) bulk , (II) bulk , and (III) , respectively. Two valence band offsets of 1.5 and are observed for layer, as shown in the inset.
Photoelectron spectra showing (a) Hf , and (b) Si of gate dielectric stack at the surface as well as in the interfacial layer (at depth), respectively.
The current vs gate voltage characteristics of the MOS capacitor at various temperatures with substrate electron injection. The experimental results at higher temperatures fit the Schottky emission theory very well, as shown in the inset. (b) Leakage current density of and gate dielectrics.
O spectra (inset) and its energy loss for gate dielectric stack.
The schematic band alignments for and systems.
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