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Sketch map of a square cross-section nanowire, in which the initial crystallographic orientations coincide with global axes , , and . The bending loads are applied along directions, as indicated by two arrows.
The potential energy per atom as a function of bending angle.
(a) Side view of the atomic structure of the copper nanowire at 10.2° bending angle, in which only inner atoms are shown. (b) The local structures of a portion of atoms that locate in initial surfaces before deformation and (c) at 30° bending angle. The atoms in pink, white, and blue are those in local fcc, hcp, and icosahedral lattices, respectively; while disordered atoms in red represent surfaces and dislocation cores.
Snapshots of the formation process of two conjoint fivefold deformation twins at bending angles of (a) 10°, (b) 17.2°, (c) 25°, (d) 25.4°, (e) 25.6°, (f) 27.5°, and (g) 40.2°. In (b)—(g), only a small section in upper half of the wire [as indicated by the blue frame in (a)] is shown for clarity. The blue lines in (e) and (f) denote the twin boundaries that compose two trijunctions (loops).
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