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AFM images of ion beam eroded Si surfaces (ion fluence of ) at different ion incidence angles: (a) 5°, (b) 25°, and (c) 26°. The image sizes are [(a)–(c)], and the arrows denote the projection of the ion beam onto the surface. Please note the deviating (vertical) scales. [(d)–(f)] Corresponding Fourier images (image range of ).
Angular distributions of ions leaving an aperture for different with and a plasma density of . The distributions are normalized to the total number of ions. The solid curves represent a Gaussian fit in order to deduce the maximum and the width of the distribution. The arrows indicate the position of the distribution maximum.
Topography diagram for ion beam erosion of Si surfaces for different acceleration voltages and ion incidence angles . The symbols denote different patterns obtained for different pairs of : , hillock structures; ˟, parallel mode ripples; ⊗, co-existing ripples and dots; ○, dots; ▵, smooth surfaces.
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