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SEM images of the as-prepared surface with various magnifications.
The XRD patterns of copper substrate before and after surface oxidation, respectively.
The XPS survey spectra of the copper substrate: the oxidized surface (a) and the final surface (b).
The CA images of the oxidation surface before (a) and after (b) chemical modification with the water CAs of about and , respectively, and a photographic image showing some water droplets floating on the surface, with all CAs larger than 150° (c).
The relationship between the and the CAs on the surface.
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