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Initial nanocone pattern grown on a silicon substrate covered with nonuniform Ni catalyst film produced by fragmentation of a continuous Ni film. The film was deposited by rf magnetron sputtering and treated in plasmas (Ref. 1), the size distribution of catalyst nanoparticles was strongly nonuniform, resulting in a nonuniform initial nanocone pattern (a). Scheme of nanocone and nanotube growth from carbon-saturated Ni catalyst nanoparticles on the surface (b).
Two patterns of Ni catalyst nanoparticles on a Si surface used in numerical simulation of NP saturation with carbon. The gray field shows the density of adsorbed carbon atoms between catalyst NPs. The surface coverage by Ni catalyst NPs is 0.1 (a) and 0.4 (b). The insets show the size distribution function of Ni catalyst nanoparticles. A scale shows the surface density of adatoms in monolayers.
Fraction of carbon-saturated catalyst nanoparticles as a function of time with the ion/atom flux ratio as a parameter for mean catalyst NP radii of (a) and (b). For the pattern, the catalyst incubation time lag varies from for for and for any below 0.5 (a). For the pattern, varies from for for and for (b). Total influx , substrate temperature .
Dependence of the incubation time lag on flux ratio for two patterns of catalyst nanoparticles (the dependence for the pattern is multiplied by a factor of 10).
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