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X-ray diffraction and absorption data of BTO-based thin films. (a) XRD patterns of the pure tetragonal BTO film and the BTO-Co nanocomposite film, both grown on (001) STO with the same thickness of . Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) results of (b) the pure tetragonal BTO film and (c) the BTO-Co composite film grown on (001) STO. The contour in the space was first obtained by performing the (113) RSM using scan. (d) -edge EXAFS results of several Co-containing specimens: Co-metal foil, BTO-Co nanocomposite film, CoO, and , in descending order.
Electron microscopy and diffraction data of the -thick BTO-Co nanocomposite film. (a) field emission-SEM image, showing Co particles (bright colored) dispersed in a BTO matrix. (b) HR-TEM image of the Co particle tightly surrounded with the BTO matrix. (c) SAED pattern of the dispersed Co particle.
Room-temperature ferroelectric and ferromagnetic hysteresis loops of the -thick BTO-Co nanocomposite film. (a) Polarization-electric field curve of the film capacitor, measured using an ac frequency of . (b) Magnetization-field hysteresis loop, obtained using the magnetic field applied parallel to the in-plane direction of the film.
Experimental data showing extrinsic ME coupling effects of the -thick BTO-Co nanocomposite film. (a) Percent changes in the real part of the relative dielectric permittivity, plotted as a function of the applied longitudinal magnetic field. (b) The longitudinal ME output plotted as a function of the static bias magnetic field. The inset summarizes the effect of the oscillating magnetic-field frequency on the ME output at zero-bias field.
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