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XPS Ge spectra of Ge surface pretreated by HCl and by HCl with . Reported chemical shift positions of and are also shown (Ref. 4).
Cross-sectional TEM images of MOS capacitor pretreated by (a) HCl and (b) HCl with and annealed at in and at in forming gas.
(a) characteristics measured from capacitors pretreated with halogen acid. (b) Schematic energy-band diagram of Ge MOS capacitor to explain at the inversion side in (a) due to bulk trap in Ge substrate where denotes trap energy level of bulk trap in Ge.
Residual Cu and Fe on Ge surface after pretreatments measured by ICP-MS. Data for as-received Ge wafer are also shown for reference. Dashed lines denote detection limit (DL) for Cu and Fe in ICP-MS, respectively. Residual Cu and Fe decrease below DL after HCl treatment with . Impurity levels of Cu and Fe in (Ref. 2) are also shown below.
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