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X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for thin film. Upper inset shows the (0002) peak of along with the corresponding peak of pure ZnO. Lower inset shows the x-ray -scan from film for plane.
Optical absorbance data of (a) and (b) ZnO. The inset shows the plot of energy.
Magnetization field curves for film at different temperatures. The inset shows the saturation magnetization as a function of temperature.
Magnetization field curves for film recorded at . Upper inset shows the magnetic susceptibility temperature variation. Lower inset shows 1/T.
Schematic diagram showing Cu ions embedded in (a) film with carrier concentration of . In these films, Cu ions exist predominantly in magnetically active state, and (b) film with carrier concentration of . Because of the enhanced carrier concentration, a fraction of additional electrons gets transferred to the orbitals of Cu ions, resulting in the completely filled orbitals. In films, only about 17% of Cu ions exist in magnetically active state.
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