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Left: tensile strain-time and force-time curves at load-controlled phase for a SWCNT bundle. The corresponding ordinates are indicated by the arrows. Right: a SWCNT rope before and after static fatigue failure.
Stress-life behavior of SWCNT ropes under static fatigue. Hollow circle: failure during quasistatic loading; solid square: average tensile strength with error bar representing standard deviation; solid circles: static fatigue failure; solid triangle with arrows: samples survived static fatigue. The dashed line represents static fatigue behavior of graphite fibers, adopted from Ref. 7. The two straight lines passing through the data, one horizontal and one with negative slope, are linear regression lines.
Stress-life behavior of SWCNT ropes in epoxy. The applied stress of SWCNT is calculated from rule-of-mixture for unidirectional reinforced composites. Square with circle is the average tensile strength, and error bar represents range of data. The grey rectangular region is for unidirectional graphite fiber reinforced composites, from Ref. 10.
Transmission electron microscopy images of (a) and (b), SWCNT subbundles failed under static fatigue, (c) several SWCNT subbundle failures under dynamic fatigue, (d) two SWCNT subbundles failed under dynamic fatigue. Stepwise flat fracture surface can be seen for one of the subbundles, and a “pullout” is seen from the other.
Stress-life behavior of SWCNT ropes from static and dynamic fatigue. Solid lines are predictions from theory: are curves starting with broken C–C bonds.
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