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Defect structure transformations resulting in nanograin nucleation. Formation of a disclination dipole at a grain boundary in a deformed nanomaterial due to [(a) and (b)] lattice dislocation slip causing “bombardment” of the grain boundary by lattice dislocations. [(d) and (e)] Grain boundary sliding and associated movement of triple junction. [(c) and (f)] Processes of nanograin nucleation through splitting and migration of grain boundaries.
The dependence of the energy difference on the distance moved by grain boundary CD in Al (see solid curves), for and ; (see dashed curves), for and . Curves 1, 2, and 3 (as well as , , and ) correspond to the disclination dipole size , 5, and , respectively.
The dependence of the critical shear stress on the size of the disclination dipole AB in (a) Al (curves 1, 2, 3, and 4 correspond to the disclination strength , 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8, respectively) and (b) (curves 1, 2, 3, and 4 correspond to the disclination strength , 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25, respectively).
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