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(a) curve at . Upper inset: diode structure, lower inset: schematic of carriers tunneling into the QD states below the flatband condition. (b) Logarithmic derivative and EL spectrum at .
(a) EL spectra at , 1.41, and (top to bottom). The energies eV, corresponding to the applied biases, are indicated by arrows. (b) Color scale plot of normalized EL spectra vs and . The labels denote the emission from the QD ground (gs) and excited states (exc), WL and GaAs. (c) Integrated EL intensities normalized to as a function of . Inset: Bias dependence of and of the QD integrated EL intensity.
(a) Normalized QD EL at applied biases indicated by circles. (b) EL spectra for , 3, and with .
(a) QD EL and (b) GaAs EL as a function of for various bias voltages, normalized to the value at . (c) Schematic of the upconversion and the carrier redistribution processes described in the text.
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