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DSC thermogram of the de-ionized water. (a) The effective sample curve (solid line), the average unprocessed sample curve (long dashed line), and the average baseline curve (short dashed line). (b) The average relative deviation of a total of nine DSC runs: six runs without water and three runs with water.
DSC thermograms of nanofluids with different nanoparticle volume fractions . Here, the effective sample heat flow curves are normalized by the corresponding masses.
Specific heat of nanofluid as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticle. Predictions from models I and II are plotted for comparison: model I (dashed line) and model II (solid line) when using the specific heat of the bulk (Ref. 45); model I (dash-dotted line) and model II (dotted line) when using the specific heat of the nanoparticles (Ref. 47).
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