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Phase diagram of the negative index of refraction in the (a) space for lossless metamaterials. (b) space for lossy metamaterials.
Electric field distribution of the wave emerging from a wedge which has the complex permittivity and permeability (a) , ; (b) , ; (c) , ; (d) , ; and (e) , . For the cases (a)–(c) the refraction rays lie in the same side of the normal as the incident rays, which demonstrates the wedge has negative index of refraction.
Contour plot of refraction index and loss in space. For a given refraction index (the red line), the loss of the NIMs with single negative is greater than that of double negative metamaterials.
(a) Quality factors and of the dispersive materials as a function of frequency. (b) Frequency dependence of the index of refraction of a lossy metamaterial.
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