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Schematic of the pool boiling experimental setup.
Superheat required for bubble nucleation on each hydrophobic island. Case I: onset of nucleation; case II: sustenance of nucleation; case III: onset of nucleation (with water subjected to of degassing).
Predicted temperature dependence of the net number flux of bubble embryos on smooth surfaces with different contact angles. The empirical threshold value of for bubble nucleation is , which implies that contact angles would be necessary to have the minimum superheat below required for bubble nucleation.
Predicted minimum superheat for bubble nucleation as a function of the nanobubble base radius and contact angle with water.
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