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TEM images of the nanopencil. (a) Nanopencil before SWNT electrode exposure (initial length: 980 nm). (b) Nanopencil after electrode exposure (length: 870 nm). The inset shows the clean SWNT electrode protruding from the coating.
Real time monitoring of the nanopencil sharpening process by conductive AFM. [(a)–(c)] height and current distribution images (left to right) of the conductive diamond film recorded during the experiment to expose the SWNT electrode. (a) Frame 1 (nanopencil scanning down). No current flow between pencil and diamond film. (b) Frame 11 (nanopencil scanning up). Current starts to flow indicating that the SWNT electrode started to be exposed. (c) Frame 17 (nanopencil scanning up). Current is fully flowing indicating that the SWNT electrode is fully exposed.
(a) height (left) and current (right) distribution images on the conductive diamond film taken after electrode exposure (nanopencil scanning up). (b) curve taken at the location indicated by the red dot on the current distribution image. The resistance corresponds to mainly contact resistance between the nanopencil and the diamond film.
PFM amplitude (right) and phase (left) images of PZT surfaces with ferroelectric domains formed by applying electrical pulses for to the PZT surfaces through the conductive nanopencils. (a) Small ferroelectric domains formed by applying 7–10 V pulses. The pulse potential decreases by a 1 V increment (left to right). Measurements from the second top row of the dots in the phase image give dot radii of 21.5, 17.5, 15.5, and 6.8 nm. (b) Ferroelectric domain patterns written by another nanopencil probe with a series of 6 V pulses.
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