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The penetration profiles for diffusion in SMAT-prepared Cu (samples A, B, C, and D), in comparison with the coarse-grained counterpart (sample O). is the penetration depth.
(a) A schematic illustration of the gradient microstructure in the SMAT Cu surface layer. Region I is composed of grains formed from twins dividing the cells formed by dislocation activities (the cell size is and the grain size is ); region III is composed of grains formed by dislocations activities; and region II is a transition from III to I. (b) The penetration profiles (Fig. 1) replotted by choosing the origin according to the specific microstructure region that allows direct determination of the effective diffusivities, see Eqs. (1a), (1b), (2a), and (2b).
Diffusivities of in different SMAT Cu samples at room temperature . The experimental uncertainties of the measured diffusion coefficients are less than .
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