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(a) Top and angled schematic of a single device showing the corresponding parts. (b) Schematic of the biasing scheme used for the Joule heating of the device. (c) Schematic of the ac voltage biasing scheme used for the direct heating of the medium.
Images showing the device with a coating of clearing point LC for Joule heating. The active area has been boxed with red dashed line for clarity. Each micrograph corresponds to different power levels dissipated in the device: (a) 0, (b) 0.85, (c) 3.8, and (d) 5.1 mW. (e) A typical intensity vs input power plot for characterizing the transition temperature. (f) Curves obtained by a sigmoidal fit to the experimental data for two different temperatures obtained utilizing a clearing point LC film and modulating the ambient temperature of the device with an external heating chuck.
Images showing the device with a coating of clearing point LC for direct heating of the medium. The active area has been boxed with red dashed line for clarity. Each micrograph corresponds to a different applied bias: (a) 0, (b) 5.6, (c) 11.5, and (d) 17.5 V. (e) A typical intensity vs input power plot for characterizing the transition temperature taken with a clearing point LC at an ambient temperature of . Initial increase in the average intensity is probably due to the LC responding to the electric field, since a similar increase is seen in the background and was ignored for curve fitting purposes. (f) Product of applied voltage square, frequency, and a complex permittivity assumed to be frequency dependent gives the theoretical power and is plotted against the frequency used for various temperature increases. The dashed lines are included to guide the eyes. The legend contains the temperature increase in degrees Celsius.
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