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Experimental setup of grayscale OET for the alignment of swimming cells. Tetrahymena cells were introduced to the liquid layer of the OET device, which an electric field was applied. An LCD module made a grayscale image and transmit it to the photoconductive layer of the OET. At the region where the light intensity was high (the right side of the photoconductive layer), the electric field was strong and thus the cells were aligned.
Captured movie stills showing a typical alignment behavior of T. pyriformis. The vertical electric field across the liquid layer was .
Cell alignment experiments of T. pyriformis using a grayscale OET. [(a)–(d)] Captured movie stills showing cell alignment in the grayscale OET. As an image with a gradient appeared from , the cells at the bright region were aligned. When the light image disappeared from , the cells swam freely again. The bias voltage was at across the vertical gap of . (e) An image to measure the ratios of cell alignment. The aligned cells were marked with arrows and the contrasts of brightness (%) were represented. (f) The ratios of cell alignment according to the light contrast were measured at midpoint of alignment for with a static image pattern. At least five replicates were conducted.
The calculated electric field distribution. (a) The vertical electric field according to the brightness. The inset represents an equivalent circuit model used to calculate the voltage drop across the liquid layer. (b) The lateral and vertical electric field along the dotted line from A to B in panel c of Fig. 3.
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