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The array of STI structures labeled with orientation and probing positions: (a) top, (b) middle, (c) entrance, (d) left bottom, and (e) right bottom. Magnified high angle annular dark field image shows inner liner layers of the structure.
CBED patterns from the (a)  and (b)  zone axes. Simulated lines shown in blue overlay experimental lines. Both patterns are simulated using the lattice parameters of , , and , with an effective voltage of for both cases, confirming that the same strain is measured in both zone axes.
STI structures with lateral forces shown on the five probed areas. Green arrows pointing outward represent tensile stress, while red arrows pointing inward represent compressive stress. (a) SOD only, (b) SOD with Si bottom fill, and (c) SOD with liner seen in the magnified high angle annular dark field image.
Lateral lattice displacements measured with CBED on the five probed areas of the STI structures. Vertical stresses were also measured but omitted based on relevance to this work. Positive numbers denote tensile strain, while negative numbers denote compressive.
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