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Schematic and optical images of an IR light-actuated tunable microlens. (a) Schematics of the microlens when it is divergent and convergent, respectively. A polymer plate with an aperture and a glass slide are used as the top and bottom plates of a water container, respectively. The sidewalls and bottom surfaces of the aperture are chemically treated hydrophilic, while the top surfaces are naturally hydrophobic. and are contact angles of DI water on respective surfaces. A meniscus, used as a microlens, is formed through a curved interface between water and oil and is pinned by the H-H boundary, protruding upward at high pressure (divergent) and bulging downward at low pressure (convergent). (b) Optical images of a microlens with 18 hydrogel microposts in divergent and convergent statuses, respectively, taken with a stereoscope from an oblique angle. The scale bar is . (c) Side profile of water meniscus of the microlens in the divergent status at the starting point taken with a goniometer. The scale bar is . (d) Chemical structure of the gold nanoparticles coated with thiolated PEG ligands.
Fabrication process flow of a liquid tunable microlens actuated by IR light-responsive hydrogel.
(a) Schematic of scanning image planes using a liquid tunable microlens. Two logos, W and UW, are printed on transparency films and are 54 and , respectively, below the glass substrate with the microlens. A CCD-coupled stereoscope is placed above the microlens to monitor and record the images. (b) Dynamic change in the positive focal length of the microlens (convergent) in one scanning cycle as a function of time. (c) Frame sequence of the focused images in one scanning cycle obtained by tuning the microlens shown in Fig. 1.
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