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Stabilization of the work function of indium tin oxide using organic surface modifiers in organic light-emitting diodes
6.F. Cacialli, J. S. Kim, T. M. Brown, J. Morgado, M. Granstrom, R. H. Friend, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, L. Favaretto, G. Barbarella, R. Daik, and W. J. Feast, Synth. Met. 109, 7 (2000).
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We herein report on the performance and improved stability of organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs) in which the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode is modified using organic surface modifiers based on phosphonic acid anchoring groups. In contrast to air plasma treatment, a commonly used technique to increase the work function of ITO, treatment of the ITO surface with a partially fluorinated phosphonic acid results in a comparable change in work function but with a higher stability over time. The resultant lifetime of OLEDs also increased when this phosphonic acid modified ITO was used.
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