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Stabilization of the work function of indium tin oxide using organic surface modifiers in organic light-emitting diodes
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

(a) Comparison of current density-voltage characteristics of untreated (dotted line), air plasma (filled triangles), FOPA (open circles), and OPA (open square) treated ITO devices. (b) Luminance and EQE shown for the respective devices appearing in (a). The inset shows the structure of the phosphorescent OLED used in the study.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Effect of ambient exposure on stability of work function over time in differently modified ITO substrates, air plasma (filled triangles), OPA (open square), and FOPA (open circles) treated ITO.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Comparison of normalized (a) luminance and (b) voltage under constant current density for air plasma (filled triangles) and FOPA (open circles) modified ITO-based device. Discontinuities in the luminance and voltage data correspond to points where operation was stopped and restarted in between measurements.

Tables

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Table I.

Work function measured by Kelvin probe and contact angle with water for differently modified ITO substrates averaged over three locations on the same substrate, and the EQE and luminous efficiency (cd/A) at in phosphorescent OLED using surface modifiers.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/93/16/10.1063/1.2998599
2008-10-24
2014-04-25

Abstract

We herein report on the performance and improved stability of organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs) in which the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode is modified using organic surface modifiers based on phosphonic acid anchoring groups. In contrast to air plasma treatment, a commonly used technique to increase the work function of ITO, treatment of the ITO surface with a partially fluorinated phosphonic acid results in a comparable change in work function but with a higher stability over time. The resultant lifetime of OLEDs also increased when this phosphonic acid modified ITO was used.

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Scitation: Stabilization of the work function of indium tin oxide using organic surface modifiers in organic light-emitting diodes
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/93/16/10.1063/1.2998599
10.1063/1.2998599
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