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Three-dimensional illustration of a surface emitting QC-ring laser. The inset shows a scanning electron microscopy image of a waveguide section holding the etched second-order DFB gratings to provide surface emission.
Peak optical power and voltage vs current density characteristics at a temperature of . The inset shows a single-mode spectrum of the same device taken at a current density of .
Surface emission single-mode spectra recorded at several temperatures. The inset illustrates the emission tuning with temperature where the solid line denotes a linear fit of the experimental data.
(a) Two-dimensional surface emission far-field plot recorded at a current density of . The circular symmetry of the interference pattern is diminished by the cryostat window. (b) Corresponding far-field cross sections along device directions and .
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