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(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM, Hitachi S4700, Japan) image showing the morphology of ferritin/PVA nanofiber hydrogels. (b) Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Philips CN30, USA) image showing an internal structure of a ferritin/PVA nanofiber. (c) Swelling characteristics of PVA and ferritin/PVA hydrogels under an external load of 0.5 MPa in DI water.
Mechanical properties of the nanofiber hydrogels in solution: (a) the stress-strain curves of PVA, ferritin/PVA, and apoferritin/PVA hydrogels immersed in a buffer solution.
Schematic showing tensile hoop stresses at boundary of a spherical filler incorporated into a matrix: (a) a filler without a shell and (b) a filler with a shell.
SAXS profiles of ferritin/PVA hydrogels according to the elongation from 0% to break after immersing in DI water ( is the magnitude of the scattering vector, defined by , where and are the scattering angle and the x-ray wavelength, respectively). The inset shows a TEM image of two ferritin nanoparticles that are closely arranged. .
The stress-strain curves of ferritin/PVA hydrogels immersed in a , a , and a buffer solution.
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