Full text loading...
AFM images of the template before and after heat treatment; (a) after solvent annealing for at room temperature; (b) after heating at a rate of and holding for . The (fast) Fourier transforms shown as (a) inserts confirm the hexagonal order of the self-assembled gel thin film, and (b) crystallized CFO cylinders.
TEM results of self-assembled thin-film nanostructures; (a) cross sectional TEM image of the PZT/CFO nanocomposite and (b) microbeam EDS elemental composition analysis, as well as (c) results of microbeam characterization. The peak at originates from the Cu grid supporting the TEM specimen. Supplementary information is presented in Fig. S3.
(a) Well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis of the annealed thin film; the saturation and remanent saturation polarization values, and , resulted from polarization positive up-negative down measurements; (b) ferromagnetic and ME characteristics of the hexagonal CFO cylinder array embedded in a PZT matrix magnetized parallel and perpendicularly to their axes, (●●●) and (◼◼◼), and with an applied magnetic, plus electric field, (◆◆◆). The permeability of the nanostructure can be changed by the application of an electric field. The ratio of the initial permeabilities, .
Theoretical and experimental values of the anisotropy energies. , interaction energy of parallel moments; , ditto of antiparallel moments; , ditto of collinear moments; , change in demagnetization energy; , saturation magnetostriction of CFO; , piezoelectric coefficient of PZT; , saturation magnetization of CFO cylinders; , ME anisotropy energy; , value of the dipolar interaction energy; average elastic constant of PZT/CFO, see SS7; and , volume of cylinder.
Article metrics loading...