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Simplified cross-sectional MLC schematic. The -direction normal to the interdigitated Ni-based electrodes is magnetically hard due to shape anisotropy. A voltage applied between the terminals generates an electric field in the BTO-based dielectric layers.
Room-temperature MLC measurements as a function of electric field . (a) Polarization in and , i.e., 300 and , respectively. is the maximum working voltage specified by the manufacturer. The expanded view (inset) shows very little hysteresis in . (b) Strain along , , and .
MLC magnetization for (black) and (red). The expanded view (inset) reveals a 20% change in remnant magnetization, and a 20% change in coercive field. For the data taken on sweeping from to zero, the ME coupling constant (dashed curve) has a maximum of at . The hard axis magnetization is also shown (dotted curve).
MLC ME response after two different treatments, with maximum values of indicated. (a) Prior to data collection, was set to zero, a saturating was applied, was set to zero (/m), and was cycled in seven times to allow a significant downward trend in to settle. (b) Prior to data collection, was set to zero and was set to where, as seen in Fig. 3, is single valued and shows a peak. The strain (dashed) from Fig. 2(b) is plotted in both (a) and (b) for comparison.
Low electric field sweeps of strain (dashed curves) and magnetization (solid curves). The curves are labeled with the electrical poling state (depoled, or poled in ). Prior to the sweeps, was set to zero, a saturating magnetic field of was applied, was set to zero ( for depoled, for poled), and was cycled in five times to allow a small downward trend in to settle. This field corresponds to the working voltage limit of .
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