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(a) SEM micrograph showing the SET electrodes and island. The source (S), drain (D), and gate (G1, with four connected electrodes, and G2) leads are covered by a metallic ground plane. (b) The characteristic, showing the Cooper-pair peak , the JQP peak , and the quasiparticle branch. (c) CBO at 15 mK for up (black, ◼) and down (red/gray, ●) gate sweeps at the JQP peak (, lower trace) showing periodicity and at the Cooper-pair peak (, upper trace) showing periodicity. The data show a hysteretic transition into a trapped charge state with .
(a) Typical exponential decays into and out of a trap for (in jump, ) and (out jump, ). (b) Capture and escape rates vs gate voltage at 25 mK. The hysteresis region (A) from to is shown as .
Electronic transitions when sweeping the gate voltage at (electron out of the trap). The arrow shows the sweep direction. (a) The occupancy of the initial state at 25 mK (◯) and 165 mK (red/gray, ◻). (b) Logarithmic plots of and showing the double exponential growth of thermal excitation below the transition and the exponential decay above the transition . Lines show fits to Eq. (2).
The parameters (●) and (▲) vs the refrigerator temperature . The lines show (solid) and [dotted, allowing for heating (Ref. 19)] for .
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