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(Top) Schematic of the experimental setup. (Bottom) De-ionized water droplet resting at an oil/water interface. When an ac potential is applied [(i) ], the bottom of the droplet deforms into a cone [(ii) ; (iii) ] and then breaks through the interfacial film, initiating coalescence [(iv) ].
Dimensionless drainage time is plotted as a function of dimensionless electric field . The closed symbols represent experiments in water/1000 cSt silicone oil for , 75, and 150 Hz; the open symbol represents experiments in water/5000 cSt silicone oil for ; the solid line represents a power law fit in the form , where .
Dimensionless deformation time is plotted as a function of dimensionless electric field . The dashed line represents the critical dimensionless electric field required for the onset of deformation . The closed symbols represent experiments for water/1000 cSt silicone oil for , 10, 20, 40, 75, and 150 Hz with drop-diameter-to-gap-height ratio ; the open triangle represents water/1000 cSt silicone oil experiments for with varying from 12.15 to 96.33; the crosshatch symbol (#) represents experiments in water/5000 cSt silicone oil for and . The inset shows time plotted as a function of effective electric field .
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