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PFM analysis of the BFO thin films. (a), (d), and (g) are topography images of samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. (b), (e), and (h) are the simultaneously captured out-of-plane PFM (OP) image at its as-grown state, respectively for each sample. [(c), (f), and (i)] The OP PFM image of the same region after applying (outer square) and (inner square) dc biases at the center of the region.
(a) XTEM image of sample 1. The inset shows the SADP of the each layer. (b) The XTEM image of sample 2 and (c) sample 3 of the FME-BFO thin films.
Bright-field elastic TEM image with EDS maps for the , , and . (a)–(d) for sample 1; (e)–(h) for sample 2; and (i)–(l) for sample 3.
High resolution TEM (HRTEM) image of the flux-film interface layer (a) for sample 2 and (b) for sample 3. The inset to (b) is the optical-diffraction pattern confirming the fcc structure for the Cu flux.
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