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Strain-field loops for BT single crystal along the  and  directions immediately after poling and upon unipolar electric field, respectively. The loops were measured at low frequency with amplitude of .
Schematic of domain configurations for BT single crystal cut along the (720) and (111) planes, respectively.
dc bias field dependence of piezoelectric constant for BT single crystal along the  and  directions, respectively.
Contour plot of the free energy at as a function of two components of polarization with the directions of  and  (without considering the  direction) for application of different electric fields along the  direction: (a) 0, (b) 0.7, (c) 1.4, and (d) . The units of these two components are . The method for plotting these curves can be found in Ref. 11 and the free energy coefficients were obtained from Refs. 12 and 13.
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