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Schematic illustration of waveforms of (a) light intensity and (b) corresponding photovoltage as a function of time .
Experimental setup of our P-KFM system.
(a) An optical micrograph of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell sample and (b) the temporally averaged photovoltage normalized by (the photovoltage under continuous illumination) as a function of the modulation frequency (: is the modulation period) measured at point A indicated in (a).
(a) Intrinsic surface potential under dark condition, (b) photovoltage during continuous light illumination at a wavelength of and (c) lifetime at points A–E indicated in Fig. 3(a).
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