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(a) PCM images of permanent structures and transient observations of plasma induced by single short pulses (, ) in bulk for various depths. The laser pulse is incident from the left. The plasma images are taken after the pulse excitation. The gradual increase in structure length is accompanied by a reduction in index contrast. (b) Schematic view of spherical aberration.
(a) SP and OP induced structures at a depth of and input energy of . (b) The axial cross sections of the corresponding refractive index change. The gray level decrease denotes a positive index variation. The inset shows the OP shape.
Structures induced by (a) pulses with different pulse durations or (b) double pulse sequences with various pulse separations at input pulse energy. Relative average fitness values are given in the figure. Energy effects for pulses with selected durations: (c) short pulse, (d) pulse, and (e) pulse. All structures are made at a depth of .
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